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What is the EU’s NIS 2 cyber Directive?

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What is the EU’s NIS 2 cyber Directive?

We run the rule over the European Union’s NIS2 security directive

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  • Will Dixon

Published: 01 Jun 2022

For some, Friday 13 May 2022 would not be an auspicious date to make a significant announcement on the future of cyber security, but the European Union (EU) did just that. It announced a political agreement between the European Parliament and the member states on updating what had been the first example of EU-wide cyber security legislation – the 2016 NIS Directive.

So a review that started in December 2020 has reached an important milestone in its journey. But how might the improved set of cyber security laws and regulations, called NIS2, change cyber security in the EU?

Delivering cyber resilience on a systemic level requires real leadership along with individual and collective action. The EU can play a significant role in creating the right incentives and governance for cyber resilience. This is not just for the largest single market in the world, but for the entire global economy.

The original 2016 NIS directive, while contributing to improving cyber security, left too many gaps and discretion to individual member states. The result was confusion, ineffective accountability, and ultimately fragmentation.

Gaps in approaches lead to friction, act as a barrier to trade, and eventually lead to more risk to businesses and individuals. NIS2 is crucial for cyber security professionals. This new directive will address four gaps.

1. Scale

First, it significantly expands the scope of application, which is of major importance. It is becoming more important for enterprises to protect themselves from cyber risks due to increasing interconnectedness, rapid digitalisation and ubiquitous connectivity.

Redefining the original scope to now be more clear in covering “essential services” – including, transport, banking and public administration, and entities operating in these services such as food production, postal services and waste management – means cyber resilience measures will need to be taken at a much larger scale across the continent.

2. Governance

Enhancing security governance and making senior managers in a business accountable for cyber resilience is also a major step. Accountability is the key to good behaviour.

Outlining that senior management needs to know security standards and oversee processes aligned to risk management practices, and sufficient to manage that risk, will drive change from top to bottom in an organisation. Cybersecurity must be addressed at the board level and by senior management, and not delegated to technical departments.

Accountability will empower chief information security officers (CISOs), though it also comes with expectations that they can communicate effectively with senior management and be technical and business leaders.

3. Fines and sanctions

Governance is especially important when combined with increased fines and broadening of sanctions.

NIS2 mandates a more comprehensive set of powers to be conferred on competent authorities. They can penalise essential entities up to 2% of the worldwide turnover or at least a fixed amount. This is a powerful incentive for businesses to ensure they meet their obligations.

Regulatory fines at this scale in other jurisdictions, notably in the US and UK, have driven greater resilience – for example, penalties leveraged on Uber, Equifax and British Airways.

These new potential penalties will be a major lever for resilience in the EU and beyond.

4. Incident response obligations

Finally, gaps have been closed and revisions made on incident response obligations.

It has been clarified what constitutes “significant impact” on an entity. This will not be defined as a number of affected users, but instead a measure of disruption to critical services or material loss. Also, notifications have been reduced from 72 to 24 hours, and reporting will be to users of services and potentially the public.

Taken together, these revisions to reporting obligations will incentivise greater responsibility to be cyber resilient and provide greater transparency to all parties affected by a potential breach. Disclosure drives responsibility.

As outlined in NIS2, governance at the level of this level can be beneficial for both business and economy. Many will view these increased responsibilities as a cost to businesses, but building a resilient digital ecosystem is a strategic necessity.

Where the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) drove up data standards in the European Union, it also became a model to follow globally. NIS2 has the potential to raise the bar and close the gaps not only in current European Union cyber security legislation, but beyond the borders of the 27 member states that will have to implement it.


Will Dixon is global head of the Academy at ISTARI. Will Dixon was previously the Global Centre for Cybersecurity, the World Economic Forum’s Cybersecurity Advisor, and the Chief Security Office at Barclays Bank’s Global Head of Intelligence.

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Nothing announces official launch date for new Ear (stick) AirPods alternatives

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Nothing announces official launch date for new Ear (stick) AirPods alternatives
Nothing Ear (stick) held by a model on white background



(Image credit: Nothing )

True to form, Nothing has just announced the full reveal date for its upcoming audio product, Ear (stick). 

So, an announcement about an announcement. You’ve got to hand it to Carl Pei’s marketing department, they never miss a trick.

What we’re saying is that although we still have ‘nothing’ conclusive about the features, pricing or release date for the Ear (stick) except an image of another model holding them (and we’ve seen plenty of those traipsing down the catwalk recently), we do have a date – the day when we’ll be granted official access to this information. 

That day is October 26. Nothing assures us that on this day we’ll be able to find out everything, including pricing and product specifications, during the online Ear (stick) Reveal, at 3PM BST (which is 10AM ET, or 1AM on Wednesday if you’re in Sydney, Australia) on nothing.tech (opens in new tab)

Any further information? A little. Nothing calls the Ear (stick), which is now the product’s official name, “the next generation of Nothing sound technology”, and its “most advanced audio product yet”. 

But that’s not all! Apparently, Ear (stick) are “half in-ear true wireless earbuds that balance supreme comfort with exceptional sound, made not to be felt when in use. They’re feather-light with an ergonomic design that’s moulded to your ears. Delivered in a unique charging case, inspired by classic cosmetic silhouettes, and compactly formed to simply glide into pockets.” 

Opinion: I need more than a lipstick-style case

Nothing Ear (stick) – official leaked renders pic.twitter.com/FrhKmRttmiOctober 1, 2022

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It’s no secret that I want Nothing’s earbuds to succeed in world dominated by AirPods; who doesn’t love a plucky, eccentric underdog? 

But in order to become some of the best true wireless earbuds on the market, there is room for improvement over the Nothing Ear 1, the company’s inaugural earbuds. 

Aside from this official ‘news’ from Nothing, leaked images and videos of the Ear (stick) have been springing up all over the internet (thank you, developer Kuba Wojciechowski) and they depict earbuds that look largely unchanged, which is a shame. 

For me, the focus needs to shift from gimmicks such as a cylindrical case with a red section at the end which twists up like a lipstick. Don’t get me wrong, I love a bit of theater, but only if the sound coming from the earbuds themselves is top dog. 

As the natural companions for the Nothing Phone 1, it makes sense for the Ear (stick) to take a place similar to that of Apple’s AirPods 3, where the flagship Ear (1) sit alongside the AirPods Pro 2 as a flagship offering. 

See, that lipstick case shape likely will not support wireless charging. That and the rumored lack of ANC means the Ear (stick) is probably arriving as the more affordable option in Nothing’s ouevre. 

For now, we sit tight until October 26. 

Becky is a senior staff writer at TechRadar (which she has been assured refers to expertise rather than age) focusing on all things audio. Before joining the team, she spent three years at What Hi-Fi? testing and reviewing everything from wallet-friendly wireless earbuds to huge high-end sound systems. Prior to gaining her MA in Journalism in 2018, Becky freelanced as an arts critic alongside a 22-year career as a professional dancer and aerialist – any love of dance starts with a love of music. Becky has previously contributed to Stuff, FourFourTwo and The Stage. When not writing, she can still be found throwing shapes in a dance studio, these days with varying degrees of success.  

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YouTube could make 4K videos exclusive to Premium subscribers

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YouTube could make 4K videos exclusive to Premium subscribers
Woman watching YouTube on mobile phone screen



(Image credit: Shutterstock / Kicking Studio)

You might soon have to buy YouTube Premium to watch 4K YouTube videos, a new user test suggests.

According to a Reddit thread (opens in new tab) highlighted on Twitter by leaker Alvin (opens in new tab), several non-Premium YouTube users have reported seeing 4K resolution (and higher) video options limited to YouTube Premium subscribers on their iOS devices. For these individuals, videos are currently only available to stream in up to 1440p (QHD) resolution.

The apparent experiment only seems to be affecting a handful of YouTube users for now, but it suggests owner Google is toying with the idea of implementing a site-wide paywall for access to high-quality video in the future.

So, after testing up to 12 ads on YouTube for non-Premium users, now some users reported that they also have to get a Premium account just to watch videos in 4K. pic.twitter.com/jJodoAxeDpOctober 1, 2022

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It’s no secret that Google has been searching for new ways to monetize its YouTube platform in recent months. In September, the company introduced five unskippable ads for some YouTube users as part of a separate test – an unexpected development that, naturally, didn’t go down well with much of the YouTube community. 

A resolution paywall seems a more palatable approach from Google. While annoying, the change isn’t likely to provoke the same level of ire from non-paying YouTube users as excessive ads, given that many smartphones still max out at QHD resolution anyway. 

Of course, if it encourages those who do care about high-resolution viewing to invest in the platform’s Premium subscription package, it may also be more lucrative for Google. After all, YouTube Premium, which offers ad-free viewing, background playback and the ability to download videos for offline use, currently costs $11.99 / £11.99 / AU$14.99 per month.

Suffice to say, the subscription service hasn’t taken off in quite the way Google would’ve hoped since its launch in 2014. Only around 50 million users are currently signed up to YouTube Premium, while something close to 2 billion people actively use YouTube on a monthly basis. 

Might the addition of 4K video into Premium’s perk package bump up that number? Only time will tell. We’ll be keeping an eye on our own YouTube account to see whether this resolution paywall becomes permanent in the coming months.

Axel is a London-based staff writer at TechRadar, reporting on everything from the newest movies to latest Apple developments as part of the site’s daily news output. Having previously written for publications including Esquire and FourFourTwo, Axel is well-versed in the applications of technology beyond the desktop, and his coverage extends from general reporting and analysis to in-depth interviews and opinion. 

Axel studied for a degree in English Literature at the University of Warwick before joining TechRadar in 2020, where he then earned a gold standard NCTJ qualification as part of the company’s inaugural digital training scheme. 

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Europe sets deadline for USB-C charging for (almost) all laptops

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Europe sets deadline for USB-C charging for (almost) all laptops

USB-C als Ladestandard in der EU

Mundissima / Shutterstock


Author: Michael Crider
, Staff Writer

Michael is a former graphic designer who’s been building and tweaking desktop computers for longer than he cares to admit. His interests include folk music, football, science fiction, and salsa verde, in no particular order.

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