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Source code for 4kb demoscene production “Elevated” released (2016)



Source code for 4kb demoscene production “Elevated” released (2016)

File download


File size:
747 161 bytes (729.65K)
File date:
2016-06-06 05: 45: 02
Download count:
all-time: 9 100

Screenshot (by Demozoo)



  • elevated.sln 954B
  • elevated.vcxproj 11.15K
  • elevated.vcxproj.user 698B
  • exe/ dir
  • license.txt 3.18K
  • link.exe 704.00K
  • manual.txt 49.75K
  • nasmw.exe 537.00K
  • src/ dir
  • src/comcall.h 1.22K
  • src/comcall.nh 3.35K
  • src/constants.h 1.80K
  • src/d3d9/ dir
  • src/d3d9/d3d9.h 159.98K
  • src/d3d9/d3d9.lib 5.09K
  • src/d3d9/d3d9caps.h 24.47K
  • src/d3d9/d3d9types.h 87.79K
  • src/d3d9/d3dx9.h 1.89K
  • src/d3d9/d3dx9.lib 85.55K
  • src/d3d9/d3dx9anim.h 42.35K
  • src/d3d9/d3dx9core.h 23.36K
  • src/d3d9/d3dx9d.lib 85.87K
  • src/d3d9/d3dx9effect.h 41.32K
  • src/d3d9/d3dx9math.h 58.21K
  • src/d3d9/d3dx9math.inl 44.21K
  • src/d3d9/d3dx9mesh.h 125.40K
  • src/d3d9/d3dx9shader.h 38.38K
  • src/d3d9/d3dx9shape.h 7.76K
  • src/d3d9/d3dx9tex.h 60.39K
  • src/d3d9/d3dx9xof.h 11.73K
  • src/d3d9/dsound.h 111.13K
  • src/d3d9/dsound.lib 3.94K
  • src/debug/ dir
  • src/debug/demo_deb.cpp 10.20K
  • src/debug/main_deb.cpp 6.14K
  • src/debug/sync.cpp 7.06K
  • src/debug/sync.h 519B
  • src/idata.cpp 8.55K
  • src/music.asm 13.76K
  • src/music.h 554B
  • src/release/ dir
  • src/release/demo_rel.asm 16.38K
  • src/release/main_rel.asm 3.54K
  • src/release/timeline.sync 615B
  • src/synth.asm 4.27K
  • src/synth.h 418B
  • src/synth_core.nh 8.00K


Crinkler - compressing linker for Windows
Copyright 2005-2015 Aske Simon Christensen and Rune L. H. Stubbe.


Crinkler is freeware. You may distribute it freely, as long as the
Crinkler executable and all accompanying documentation files are kept
together and intact. You may not distribute modified versions or any
kind of derived work based on Crinkler or its documentation.


The output of Crinkler (executable files, HTML compression reports
and other textual output) is to be considered the original works of
you as a user of Crinkler. You may use Crinkler and its output for
any legal purpose with the following restrictions:
- You may not use Crinkler or its output for any commercial purpose.
- You may not use Crinkler or its output in any setting where security
  is essential.
- You may not use Crinkler or its output for any safety critical
- You may not use Crinkler or its output in the production of any
  virus, worm, trojan, spyware or other malicious software.


Crinkler comes with no warranties of any kind. Crinkler is
experimental software that relies on many undocumented features of the
Windows PE loader. It has been created with the sole purpose of
producing tiny executable files that may or may not work as intended
on current and/or future versions of Windows.


Crinkler uses the BSD-licensed diStorm disassembler library for
producing disassembly output of the compressed code. The license for
diStorm requires that the license below is included with derivative
works. The license below applies only to diStorm and not to Crinkler
as a whole.

: [diStorm64}:
The ultimate disassembler library.
Copyright (c) 2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008, Gil Dabah
All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

    Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
    Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
    Neither the name of the diStorm nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.


CRINKLER - Compressing linker for Windows specialized for 4k intros

Aske Simon Christensen "Blueberry/Loonies"
Rune L. H. Stubbe "Mentor/TBC"

Version 2.0 (July 28, 2015)

28.07.15: 2.0:  /TINYHEADER option: smaller decompressor for 1k intros.
                /TINYIMPORT option: smaller import code for 1k intros.
                /EXPORT option to export code and data symbols.
                /SATURATE option to saturate context counters.
                /FALLBACKDLL option for when a DLL is not available.
                /UNALIGNCODE option to set alignment of all code to 1.
                Support for /REPLACEDLL during recompression.
                Consistent size between model estimation and reordering.
                Header size reduced by 2 bytes.
                Print previous size of output file.
                Accept version specifier after /SUBSYSTEM value.
                Switched from Intel OpenMP to MSVC concurrency API.

19.01.13: 1.4:  Output EXE files work with recent NVIDIA drivers.
                New zero-section header layout saving around 30-50 bytes.
                Forwarded RVA imports supported via link-time forwarding.
                Dynamic C++ initializers supported.
                Support for producing Large Address Aware executables.
                Crinkler is Large Address Aware, handling larger inputs.
                Report all unresolved symbols and the location of each.
                Better resolving of ambiguous label references in report.
                Various adjustments to textual output.
                /RECOMPRESS overwrites input file by default.

05.03.11: 1.3:  Fixed Crinkler crash on some AMD systems.
                Header size reduced by 21 bytes.
                Slightly improved model hash function.
                /OVERRIDEALIGNMENTS option to specify label alignments.
                No limit on the number of calls in call transform.
                Import code and entry point movable by section reordering.
                Fixed bug in handling of files with absolute path.
                Fixed labels in report showing up in the wrong section.
                Crinkler writes .dmp files in case of a crash.

05.09.09: 1.2:  Output EXE files are now Windows 7 compatible.
                Output EXE files are no longer Windows 2000 compatible.
                Header size reduced by 16 bytes.
                Non-range import code is (usually) slightly smaller.
                Slightly improved section ordering estimation.
                /RECOMPRESS option to recompress Crinkler-compressed
                executables, optionally with different parameters.
                /FIX removed, as it is subsumed by /RECOMPRESS.

14.01.09: 1.1a: Fixed /TRUNCATEFLOATS crashing in some cases.
                Improved /ORDERTRIES estimation when call transform is used.
                Sometimes sections were misplaced in the HTML report.
                Various improvements to the HTML report.
                The /FIX option can input and output to the same file.
                Helpful error messages for various unsupported features.
                Prefer a custom entry point to a standard library one.
                New section in the manual about runtime libraries.

12.01.08: 1.1:  Support for weak externals (virtual C++ destructors).
                Fixed compatibility with Data Execution Prevention.
                /REPORT option for a colorful HTML compression report.
                /TRUNCATEFLOATS option to mutilate float constants.
                /SAFEIMPORT is now default, disabled with /UNSAFEIMPORT.
                Slightly smaller overhead if range importing is not used.
                Fixed some problems with compressing very small files.
                /VERBOSE:FUNCTIONS removed, as it is subsumed by /REPORT.
                Remaining /VERBOSE options renamed to /PRINT.
                Maximum number of ORDERTRIES increased to 100000.

07.01.07: 1.0a: New /VERBOSE:FUNCTIONS options to sort the functions.
                Various verbose output fixes.
                Various crash fixes.
                A fix to the /FIX Crinkler version recognizer.

27.12.06: 1.0:  Output EXE files are now Windows Vista compatible.
                Compression tweak for greatly improved compression ratio.
                Much faster compression.
                Automatically takes advantage of multiple processors.
                Improved Visual Studio 2005 integration.
                /COMPMODE:INSTANT option for very quick compression.
                /ORDERTRIES option to try out different section orderings.
                /SAFEIMPORT option to insert a check for nonexistent DLLs.
                /PROGRESSGUI option for a graphical progress bar.
                /REPLACEDLL option to replace one DLL with another.
                /FIX option to fix compatibility problems of older versions.

09.02.06: 0.4a: Fixed linker crash problem with blank member entries
                in some library files (such as glut32).
                The /PRIORITY option was not mentioned in the
                commandline usage help.

18.12.05: 0.4:  Changed header and import code to make output EXE files
                compatible with 64-bit versions of Windows.
                Fixed a bug in the ordinal range import mechanism.
                Added a switch to control the process priority.
                Added a warning for range import of an unused DLL.
                Some more header squeezing.

31.10.05: 0.3:  Output EXE files are now Windows 2000 compatible.
                Added a number of verbose options to output useful
                information about the program being compressed.
                Added an option for transforming function calls to
                use absolute offsets to improve compression.
                Fixed a bug in the linker regarding identically named
                Fixed a potential crash bug in the linker.
                Various small tweaks and optimizations.

23.07.05: 0.2:  Fixed bug in the decompressor.
                Changed the behaviour of the /CRINKLER option.
                Added timing to the progress bars.
                Some updates to the manual and usage description.

21.07.05: 0.1:  First release.


Ever since the concept of size-limited demo competitions was
introduced in the early 1990's (and before that as well), people have
been using executable file compressors to reduce the size of their
final executables. An executable file compressor is a program that
takes as input an executable file and produces a new executable file
which has the same behaviour as the original one but is (hopefully)

The usual technique employed by executable file compressors is to
compress the contents of the executable file using some general
purpose data compression method and prepend to this compressed data a
small piece of code (the decompressor) which decompresses the contents
into memory in such a way that it looks to the code as if the original
executable file had been loaded into memory in the normal way.

The size of the decompressor is usually around a few hundred bytes,
depending on the complexity of the compression method. This
constitutes an unavoidable overhead in the compressed file, which is
particularly evident for small files, such as 4k intros. Furthermore,
the header of the Windows EXE file format contains a lot of
information that needs to be there at fixed offsets in order for
Windows to be able to load the file. The presence of these overheads
from the header and decompressor motivated people to look for other
means of compressing their 4k intros.

Until Crinkler came around, the most popular strategy for compressing
4k intros for Windows was CAB dropping: A few simple transformations
are performed on the executable to make it compress better (such as
merging sections and setting unused header fields to zero), and the
result is compressed using the Cabinet Compression tool included with
Windows. The resulting .CAB file is renamed to have .BAT extension,
and some commands are inserted into the file such that when the .BAT
file is executed, it decompresses the executable to disk (using the
Cabinet decompression command), runs the executable and then deletes
the executable again. This saves the size of the decompression code
(since an external program is used to do the decompression) and some
of the size of the header (since the header can be compressed).

Various dropping strategies combined with other space-saving hacks
people employed on their 4k intros (in particular import by ordinal)
caused severe compatibility problems. More often than not, people
who wanted to run a newly released 4k intro found that it did not
work on their own machine. It became customary to include a
'compatible' version in the distribution which was larger than 4k
but worked on all machines. For a time, it seemed that the term
'4k intro' meant '4k on the compo machine' intro.

The main motivation for starting the Crinkler project was the feeling
that the existing means available for compressing 4k intros were
unsatisfactory. We want 4k intros that are self-contained EXE
files. We want 4k intros that are 4 kilobytes in size. Our aim for
Crinkler is to be the cleanest, most effective and most compatible
executable file compressor for Windows 4k intros.


The goal of Crinkler is for the produced EXE files to be compatible
with all widely used Windows versions and configurations. As of
version 2.0, the EXE files produced by Crinkler are, to the best of
our knowledge, compatible with Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7,
Windows 8 and Windows 10, both 32 bit and 64 bit versions. They are
compatible with Data Execution Prevention and with execution hooks
that inspect the import or export table of launched executables
(graphics drivers are known to do this).

It is not a primary goal of Crinkler to anticipate incompatibilities
that may arise in the future as a consequence of new Windows versions,
graphics drivers or other widespread system changes. Guaranteeing such
compatibility would require Crinkler to follow the EXE file format
specification to the letter, precluding most of the header hacks that
Crinkler utilizes in order to reduce the size overhead of the EXE
format as much as possible. Rather, we strive to continually monitor
the compatibility situation and release a new, fixed version of
Crinkler whenever a situation arises that affects the compatibility
severely (such as a new, incompatible version of Windows). This has
occurred several times already throughout the history of Crinkler.

Each new version of Crinkler not only produces executables that are
compatible with the current majority of targeted systems. It also
includes a way of fixing old Crinkler executables to have the same
level of compatibility. See the section on recompression for more
details on this feature.

This compatibility strategy ensures that intros made using Crinkler
will continue to be accessible to their audience, even if the Windows
EXE loader changes in an incompatible way that could not be
anticipated at the time the intro was produced.


Crinkler is a different approach to executable file compression. While
an ordinary executable file compressor operates on the executable file
produced by the linker from object files, Crinkler replaces the linker
by a combined linker and compressor. The result is an EXE file which
does not do any kind of dropping. It decompresses into memory like a
traditional executable file compressor.

Crinkler employs a range of techniques to reduce the size of the
resulting EXE file beyond what is usually obtained by using CAB

- Having control over the linking step gives much more flexibility in
  the optimizations and transformations possible on the data before
  and after compression.

- The compression technique used by Crinkler is based on context
  modelling, which is far superior in compression ratio to the LZ
  variants used by CAB and most other compressors. The disadvantage of
  context modelling is that it is extremely slow, but this is of
  little importance when only 4 kilobytes need to be compressed. It
  also needs quite a lot of memory for decompression, but this is
  again not a problem, since the typical 4k intro uses a lot of memory

- The actual compression algorithm performs many passes over the data
  in order to optimize the internal parameters of the compressor. This
  results in slower compression, but this is usually a reasonable
  price to pay for the extra bytes gained on the file size.

- The contents of the executable are split into two parts - a code
  part and a data part - and each of these are compressed
  individually. This leads to better compression, as code and data are
  usually very different in structure and so do not benefit from being
  compressed together.

- DLL functions are imported by hash code. This is robust to
  structural changes to the DLL between different versions while being
  quite compact - only 4 bytes per imported function. For DLLs with
  fixed relative ordinals (such as opengl32), a special technique,
  ordinal range import, can be used to further reduce the number of
  hash codes needed.

- Much of the data in the EXE header is actually ignored by the EXE
  loader. This space is used for some of the decompression code.

Using Crinkler is somewhat different from using an ordinary executable
file compressor because of the linking step. In the following
sections, we describe its use in detail.


To use as a stand-alone linker, Crinkler does not need any
installation. Simply run crinkler.exe from the commandline with
appropriate arguments, as described in the next section.

However, if you are using Microsoft Visual Studio to develop your
intro, the easiest way to use Crinkler is to run it in place of the
normal Visual Studio linker. Crinkler has been designed as a drop-in
replacement of the Visual Studio linker, supporting the same basic
options. All of the options can then be set using the Visual Studio
configuration window.

Unfortunately, Visual Studio does not (as of this writing) support
replacing its linker by a different one. So what you have to do to
make Visual Studio use Crinkler for linking is the following:

- Copy crinkler.exe to your project directory or to some other
  directory of your choice and rename it to link.exe. If you are using
  some other linker with a different name, such as the one used with
  the Intel C++ compiler, call it whatever the name of the linker is.

- For Visual Studio 2008 and older, select Tools/Options... and go to
  Projects and Solutions/VC++ Directories. For Visual Studio 2010 or
  newer, open a project, select View/Property Manager, expand a project
  and a configuration, double click on Microsoft.Cpp.Win32.user and go
  to Common Properties/VC++ Directories.

- At the top of the list for Executable files, add the directory where
  you placed Crinkler named link.exe, or add $(SolutionDir) to make it
  search in the project directory.

- In the Release configuration (or whichever configuration you want to
  enable compression), under Linker/Command Line/Additional Options,
  type in /CRINKLER, along with any other Crinkler options you want to
  set. See the next section for more details on options. Also set
  Linker/Manifest File/Generate Manifest to No and
  C/C++/Optimization/Whole Program Optimization to No.

If you have Visual Studio installed but want to run Crinkler from the
commandline, the easiest way is to use the Visual Studio Command
Prompt (available from the Start menu), since this sets up the LIB
environment variable correctly. You can read off the value of the
environment variables by running the 'set' command in this command
prompt. If you are using a different command prompt, you will have to
set up the LIB environment variable manually, or use the /LIBPATH


The general form of the command line for Crinkler is:

CRINKLER [options] [object files] [library files] [@commandfile]

When running from within Visual Studio, the object files will be the
ones generated from the sources in the project. The library files will
be the standard set of Win32 libraries, plus any additional library
files specified under Linker/Input/Additional Dependencies. If you are
using a standard runtime library, such as msvcrt, you will have to
specify this one manually. See the section on standard libraries for
more information.

The following options are compatible with the VS linker and can be set
using switches in the Visual Studio configuration window:


    Specify the Windows subsystem to use. If the subsystem is CONSOLE,
    a console window will be opened when the program starts. The
    subsystem also determines the name of the default entry point (see
    /ENTRY). The default subsystem is WINDOWS.

(Linker/System/Enable Large Addresses)

    Specify whether the executable is able to handle addresses above
    2 gigabytes. If this option is enabled, the executable will be able
    to allocate close to 4 gigabytes of memory.

/OUT: [file]
(Linker/General/Output File)

    Specify the name of the resulting executable file. The default
    name is out.exe.

/ENTRY: [symbol]
(Linker/Advanced/Entry Point)

    Specify the entry label in the code. The default entry label is
    mainCRTStartup for CONSOLE subsystem applications and
    WinMainCRTStartup for WINDOWS subsystem applications.

/LIBPATH: [path]
(Linker/General/Additional Library Directories)

    Add a number of directories (separated by semicolons) to the ones
    searched for library files. If a library is not found in any of
    these, the directories mentioned in the LIB environment variable
    are searched.


    Commandline arguments will be read from the given file, as if they
    were given directly on the commandline.

In addition to the above options, a number of options can be given to
control the compression process. These can be specified under
Linker/Command Line/Additional Options:


    Enable the Crinkler compressor. If this option is disabled,
    Crinkler will search through the path for a command with the same
    name as itself, skipping itself, and pass all arguments on to this
    command instead. This will normally invoke the Visual Studio
    linker. If the name of the Crinkler executable is crinkler.exe,
    this option is enabled by default, otherwise it is disabled by


    Decompress a Crinkler-compressed executable and recompress it
    using the given options. The resulting executable will have the
    same level of compatibility as one produced directly by the
    current version of Crinkler. See the section on compatibility for
    more information on the compatibility of Crinkler-produced

    When this option is specified, Crinkler takes a single file
    argument, which must be an EXE file produced by Crinkler 0.4 or

    See the section on recompression below for a description of the
    options that can be given to control the decompression process.


    Select the process priority at which Crinkler will run while
    compressing. The default priority is BELOWNORMAL. Use IDLE if you
    want Crinkler to disturb you as little as possible. Use NORMAL if
    you don't need your machine for anything else while compressing.


    Choose between three different compression modes. The FAST mode
    usually compresses in a couple of seconds, while the SLOW one can
    take up to a few minutes to complete. The slow one usually
    compresses about 10-40 bytes better on a 4k executable. Use
    INSTANT if you just want to check that your program works in
    compressed form and don't care about the size. The default
    compression mode is FAST.


    The compressor and decompressor use pairs of 8-bit counters to
    track the distributions of 0 and 1 bits for each context. If your
    data is very repetitive (contains large blocks of the same pattern
    of values repeated over and over again), these counters may wrap
    around, which can sometimes hurt compression of these repetitive

    This option inserts extra code in the decompression header to keep
    these counters from wrapping. It is worth trying out if you have
    large, repetitive regions and see in the compression report that
    the data in these regions suddenly jumps up from lightest green to
    slightly darker green for no apparent reason.

/HASHSIZE: [memory size]

    Specify the amount of memory the decompressor is allowed to use
    while decompressing, in megabytes. In general, the more memory the
    decompressor is allowed to use, the better the compression ratio
    will be, though only slightly. The memory requirements of the
    final executable (the size of the executable image when loaded
    into memory) will be the maximum of this value and the original
    image size. The memory will not be deallocated until the program
    terminates, and any heap allocation the program performs will add
    to this memory usage. The default value is 100, which is usually a
    good compromise.

/HASHTRIES: [number of retries]

    Specify the number of different hash table sizes the compressor
    will try in order to find one with few collisions. More tries lead
    to longer compression time but slightly better compression. The
    default value is 20. Higher values rarely improve the size by more
    than a few bytes.

    Enables an alternative compression algorithm trading off some
    compression efficiency for an even smaller decompression overhead.
    This can be beneficial when targeting extremely small file sizes
    such as 1kb. The simpler decompressor gathers statistics by
    repeated linear searches instead of hashing. This results in
    an O(n^2) decompression time which can become prohibitively slow
    for files significantly larger than 1kb.

    ignored when TINYHEADER is enabled.

    Enables a more compact function importing scheme that does not
    require the explicit storage of function name hashes. This is
    achieved by indiscriminately importing every function from the
    relevant DLLs. Imported functions are distributed in an import
    table based on their function name hashes. Intuitively, this
    embeds the hash code entropy directly into the call instruction.

    Crinkler ensures that the import table size and hash function are
    chosen such that there are no collisions for the functions in use.

    This technique is potentially less resilient to changes in
    future windows versions, so it is recommended to also distribute
    safe versions when using this option.

    The UNSAFEIMPORT, FALLBACKDLL and RANGE options are ignored
    when TINYIMPORT is enabled.

/ORDERTRIES: [number of retries]

    Specify the number of section reordering iterations that the
    linker will try out in search for the ordering that gives the best
    compression ratio. The default is not to do any reordering.
    Specifying this option drastically increases the compression time,
    since Crinkler has to calculate the compressed size anew on every
    reordering. Usually, the size does not improve noticeably after a
    few thousand iterations.

/RANGE: [DLL name]

    Import functions from the given DLL (without the .dll suffix)
    using ordinal range import. Ordinal range import imports the first
    used function by hash and the rest by ordinal relative to the
    first one. Ordinal range import is safe to use on DLLs in which
    the ordinals are fixed relative to each other, such as opengl32 or
    d3dx9_??. This option can be specified multiple times, for
    different DLLs.


    Whenever a function is imported from oldDLL, import it from newDLL
    instead. DLL replacement is useful when the end user might not
    have the version of the DLL that you are linking to. A typical use
    is to replace one version of d3dx9_?? by another. Only use this
    option if you know that the two DLLs are compatible. When
    REPLACEDLL and RANGE are used together, RANGE must refer to the
    new DLL.

/FALLBACKDLL: [firstDLL]=[otherDLL]

    If firstDLL fails to load, try loading otherDLL and import the
    functions from there instead. For instance, to use d3dcompiler_47
    when available but fall back to d3dcompiler_43 otherwise (since
    the shader compiler in d3dcompiler_47 is much faster), link
    to d3dcompiler_47 and use:


    The FALLBACKDLL option can be used together with REPLACEDLL to
    specify a primary DLL other than the one your SDK links to. For
    instance, if you are using the legacy DirectX SDK (which links to
    d3dcompiler_43) and want to have the above prioritization, use:


    Arbitrarily long chains of DLL fallback can be used by specifying
    the FALLBACKDLL option multiple times, though the chains can of
    course not be cyclic.

/EXPORT: [name]
/EXPORT: [name]=[symbol]
/EXPORT: [name]=[value]

    Include an export table into the executable, containing an export
    with the given name.

    The first version exports an existing symbol under its existing
    name. The second version exports an existing symbol under a
    different name. The third version creates a 32-bit integer with
    the given value and exports it under the given name. The value
    can be specified in octal (prefixed with 0), decimal or hexadecimal
    (prefixed with 0x) format.

    The first version is compatible with the VS linker, but there is
    currently no specific field for it in the configuration window.

    The export table will be compressed along with the other data
    in the executable and decompressed to the memory address specified
    in the export table pointer in the PE header. Thus, the exports
    defined this way are only visible to code inspecting the export
    table after decompression has taken place.

    For PE header technical reasons, all exports must be placed earlier
    in memory than the export table. Thus, only symbols in the code and
    data sections can be exported. If an uninitialized (BSS) symbol is
    exported, it will be automatically moved to the data section (with
    a warning). Beware that this will move the whole section containing
    the symbol, so other symbols might be moved along with it.

    The EXPORT option can be used to signal to the graphics driver that
    your program desires to run on the high-performance GPU in a multi-
    GPU system. This saves the user from having to right-click on the
    executable and select "Run with graphics processor...".

    To request high performance on NVIDIA Optimus systems, use:


    To request high performance on AMD PowerXpress/Enduro systems, use:


    An arbitrary number of exports can be specified, so the two high
    performance declarations can be used together if you have space
    enough to spare.


    If the executable fails to load some DLL, it will normally pop up
    a message box with the DLL name. This option disables this check
    to save a few bytes (usually around 20). With unsafe import, the
    executable will crash if a needed DLL is not found.


    Change the relative jump offsets in all internal call instructions
    (E8 opcode) into absolute offsets from the start of the code. This
    usually improves compression, since multiple calls to the same
    function become identical. The transformation has an overhead of
    about 20 bytes for the detransformation code, but the net savings
    on a full 4k can be as large as 50 bytes, depending on the number
    of calls in your code.


    Disable the inclusion of dynamic C++ initializers. The default is
    to insert calls to each of the initializers just before the entry

/TRUNCATEFLOATS: [number of bits]

    Floating point constants can take up a significant amount of space
    in an intro, and often much of this space is wasted because the
    constants have more precision than needed. Typically, many bytes
    can be saved by rounding floating point constants to "nice" values
    - that is, values where many bits in the mantissa are zero.
    However, such rounding is cumbersome, especially when the
    constants are written in decimal notation.

    The purpose of the /TRUNCATEFLOATS option is to automate this
    rounding process. When this option is given, Crinkler tries to
    identify float and double constants and round them to the number
    of bits given (between 1 and 64). If no number is given, 64 is

    Typically, object files do not contain any information about what
    data is floating point constants and what is not (though the file
    format does support such information). This means that in order to
    identify floating point constants, Crinkler has to resort to
    heuristics based on label names. These heuristics are able to
    recognize constants in code and some variables, but far from all.

    You can tell Crinkler explicitly that some variable contains float
    data and how much it should be truncated by having the variable
    name (or label) start with tf[n]_ where [n] is the number of bits
    to truncate the constants to. The number of bits can be omitted,
    in which case the number of bits given in the argument to
    /TRUNCATEFLOATS is used. Such variables will still only be
    truncated if the /TRUNCATEFLOATS option is given. Example:

    const float tf14_positions[] = { 0.1f, 0.35f, 0.25f };

    This will truncate the constants in the table to 14 bits (5 bits
    of mantissa), resulting in the values 0.099609375, 0.3515625 and
    0.25, respectively. Tip: rather than changing the variable name
    and all references to it each time you want to change the
    truncation precision, use a define:

    #define positions tf14_positions

    Note that /TRUNCATEFLOATS is an unstable and highly experimental
    feature. Make sure to test the compressed file to verify that the
    result is acceptable. Remember to include the musician in this
    verification process. :)

/OVERRIDEALIGNMENTS: [bits of alignment]

    It is often possible to improve compression by placing
    uninitialized variables at addresses divisible by high powers of
    two, since this will cause all references to these addresses to
    contain more zeros.

    The PE file format only supports up to 13 bits of alignment
    (8192), and some tools do not even expose this support fully (for
    instance, Nasm only supports alignments up to 64). Usually, much
    higher alignments are desirable.

    Crinkler supports explicit alignment of labels at up to one
    gigabyte (30 bits). When you specify the /OVERRIDEALIGNMENTS
    option, Crinkler will look for labels containing the string
    align[n] where [n] is the number of bits of alignment desired
    (e.g. 8 for 256-byte alignment). It will then align the section
    containing that label such that the label address is divisible by
    2^[n]. The label does not have to be at the beginning of the
    section, but there can be at most one explicitly aligned label in
    each section.

    The alignment specifier can optionally include an alignment
    offset, specified by the string align[n]_[m] where [n] is the
    number of bits of alignment and [m] is the offset in bytes. This
    will place the label [m] bytes after an aligned address, i.e. such
    that the address minus [m] is divisible by 2^[n].

    If a numerical argument is given to /OVERRIDEALIGNMENTS, all
    uninitialized sections which do not contain an explicitly aligned
    label will be aligned to the given number of bits (if larger than
    their original alignment). If the option is specified without
    argument, uninitialized sections which do not contain an
    explicitly aligned label will be aligned as specified in the
    object file, as normally.

    A convenient way to specify explicit alignments in C++ code is in
    a header file included by all files in the project, containing
    definitions like this:

    #define MusicBuffer MusicBuffer_align24

    In assembler files, alignments can be specified as local labels:

    ; buffer space here

    Explicit alignment can be used on code and data sections as well,
    except for the section containing the entry point, which will
    always be 1-byte aligned. The space between the sections will be
    padded with zero bytes.


    Force all code sections to use alignment of 1, eliminating all
    padding between them. This usually improves compression, but
    can result in slightly lower performance if some functions are
    called in performance critical loops.

    The /OVERRIDEALIGNMENTS mechanism has priority over /UNALIGNCODE,
    so if you want to excempt a few functions from being unaligned,
    you can specify an explicit alignment for these as described for

Finally, Crinkler has a number of options for controlling the output
during compression. Just like the other options, these can be
specified under Linker/Command Line/Additional Options:

/REPORT: [HTML file name]

    Write an HTML file with a detailed, colorful, interactive report
    on the compression result. The code section will be shown as hex
    dump and disassembly of the code, and the data section will be
    shown as hex and ascii dump. All bytes will be colored to show how
    much that byte was compressed. This report can be useful in
    determining which parts of the executable take up the most space
    and which things to change to reduce the size.


    Print a list of all labels in the program along with uncompressed
    and compressed sizes for the data between the labels. This is a
    stripped down version of the information provided by the /REPORT


    List all functions imported from DLLs. The functions are grouped
    by DLL, and functions imported by ordinal range import are grouped
    into ranges.


    List the model masks and weights selected by the compressor. This
    is mostly for internal use.


    Open a window showing a graphical progress indicator.

An example commandline for linking and compressing an intro could look
like this (split on multiple lines for readability):

crinkler.exe /OUT:micropolis.exe /SUBSYSTEM:WINDOWS /RANGE:opengl32
 kernel32.lib user32.lib gdi32.lib opengl32.lib glu32.lib winmm.lib
 micropolisstartup.obj micropolisrender.obj
 micropolisrender-asm.obj micropolissound.obj


A new feature in Crinkler 1.2 is the abillity to recompress an already
Crinkler-compressed executable. The main purpose for the feature is to
patch an executable compressed using an earlier version of Crinkler so
that it runs on recent Windows versions. But it can also be used
more generally to change some of the compression parameters of a
compressed program without performing the whole linking and
compression process from scratch and without access to the original
object files. Particularly, if your output executable after a long
time spent compressing is just a few bytes too big due to bytes lost
to hashing, you can recompress the output executable, specifying a
higher value for /HASHSIZE and/or /HASHTRIES, and thus avoid running
through the whole compression process again.

Recompression mode is activated by the /RECOMPRESS option. When this
option is specified, Crinkler takes a single file argument, which must
be an EXE file produced by Crinkler 0.4 or newer. Most options then
take on slightly different meanings, as described here.

The /CRINKLER, /PRIORITY, @commandfile and /PROGRESSGUI options work
are ignored, as the parameters specified by these options cannot be
changed via recompression. The /PRINT options are also ignored. The
remaining options work as follows:


    If this option is given, it specifies the Windows subsystem to use
    as normally. If it is omitted, the original subsystem will be


    If this option is given, it specifies large address awareness of the
    executable as normally. If it is omitted, the original large address
    awareness will be used.

/OUT: [file]

    Specify the name of the resulting executable file. The default is
    to overwrite the input file.


    If this option is specified, the compression models will be
    reestimated using the specified compression mode. If the option is
    omitted, the models used for the original compression will be used
    for the recompression, and no model estimation will be performed.
    If the executable was originally produced by Crinkler 1.0 or
    newer, this will typically yield a compression ratio similar to
    the original compression.


    If this option is given, it specifies saturation as normally. If
    it is omitted, the original saturation mode will be used.

/HASHSIZE: [memory size]

    If neither this option nor a compression mode is specified, the
    original, optimized hash size will be used. Recompression speed
    will be similar to INSTANT compression mode in this case.

    If a compression mode is specified but this option is omitted,
    hash size optimization will be performed using the hash size
    specified for the original file.

    If this option is given, hash size optimization takes place
    normally, using the specified maximum size.

/HASHTRIES: [number of retries]

    If hash size optimization takes place, this option specifies the
    number of tries as normally. Otherwise it is ignored.


    Replaces an original DLL by a new one. Only works if the names
    of the DLLs are exactly the same length.


    This is a recompression specific option which instructs Crinkler
    to strip away any existing exports from the executable. New exports
    can be added using the /EXPORT option whether or not the existing
    exports are stripped away.

/EXPORT: [name]
/EXPORT: [name]=[symbol]
/EXPORT: [name]=[value]

    Adds an export to the executable, as normally. The first two
    versions can only refer to an existing export in the executable
    that was exported using one of the first two versions in the first
    place. They can refer to such an export even if existing exports
    are stripped away using the /STRIPEXPORTS option.

    If an export already exists with the same name, the new export
    replaces the existing one.

/REPORT: [HTML file name]

    Writes out an HTML file as normally. Since no symbol information
    is available, this will be a plain disassembly/hex dump without
    labels or cross-linking.


Under normal circumstances, the Visual Studio compiler generates code
that requires a C runtime library containing standard C functions and
various support functions. These functions can either be linked in
statically (included into the executable) or dynamically via a runtime
DLL. For size-sensitive applications, you should always link
dynamically, which is achieved by setting C/C++/Code
Generation/Runtime Library to Multi-threaded DLL (/MD).

Note however, that the standard runtime libraries for Visual Studio
2005 or newer will not work with Crinkler-compressed executables,
since these runtime libraries require a manifest in the executable,
and Crinkler does not support manifests. Furthermore, these DLLs are
not present by default on Windows installations, so you will usually
not want your program to be dependent on them.

To work around this, link to the Visual Studio 6 runtime library -
msvcrt.dll - which is distributed with all Windows versions. This is
done by using the Visual Studio 6 version of msvcrt.lib, which can be
obtained thus:

- Download Service Pack 6 for Visual Studio 6.0 at
- Place the downloaded self-extractor in an empty directory and run
  it, or open it using an archive tool such as WinRAR.
- Open the file and go to the vc98lib directory. There
  you will find the msvcrt.lib file.
- Rename this file to something else (such as msvcrt_old.lib) and
  place it in your project directory.
- Add msvcrt_old.lib to the list of libraries to link to at
  Linker/Input/Additional Dependencies.

There are a couple of caveats to using an older runtime library than
the compiler expects, though. With out-of-the-box compilation
options, the Visual Studio compiler generates code that requires some
support functions which are only present in newer runtime DLLs. To
avoid these dependencies, set the following options under C/C++/Code

- Basic Runtime Checks: Default
- Buffer Security Check: No (/GS-)

Also, do not use C++ exception handling in your code. And do not use
STL classes, since they use exceptions all over.

Finally, even when using the DLL-based runtime, not all support code
is linked dynamically. The runtime library contains an entry function
which is included into the executable and takes care of things like
parsing the commandline and executing dynamic initializers. The entry
function then calls the main function.

The standard entry function is around half a kilobyte in size and is
usually not needed for intro code to function properly. To avoid this
overhead, define your own entry function, either by defining a
function called mainCRTStartup or WinMainCRTStartup (depending on
which Windows subsystem you use) or by using the /ENTRY option.

The best strategy is of course to avoid linking to a runtime DLL at
all, assuming you can do without the functions provided by the
standard runtime library. This will save the space for importing the
runtime DLL.

To reduce the dependencies on the standard runtime DLL as much as
possible, set the following options:

- C/C++/Optimization/Enable Intrinsic Functions: Yes (/Oi). This will
  cause several standard functions (mainly math, string and memory
  functions) to generate inline code rather than a function call.
- C/C++/Code Generation/Floating Point Model: Fast (/fp:fast).
- C/C++/Command Line: Add the option /QIfist. This will cause
  conversions from floating point to integer to use the FIST
  instruction rather than calling a conversion function. Note that
  this changes the semantics of conversions from truncation to
  round-to-nearest (unless you explicitly change the rounding mode of
  the FPU). On the other hand, it will also give a considerable speed


There are a number of things you can do as intro programmer to boost
the compression achieved by Crinkler even further. This section
gives some advice on these.

- Since much of the effectiveness of Crinkler comes from separating
  code and data into different parts of the file and compressing each
  part individually, it is important that this separation is
  possible. Mark your code and data sections as containing code and
  data, respectively, and do not put both code and data into the same
  section. See your assembler manual for information about how to do
  this. For instance, in Nasm, you can write the keyword "text" or
  "data" after the section name and give sections different names to
  prevent them from being merged by the assembler.

- Split both your code and your data into as many sections as
  possible. This gives Crinkler more opportunities to select the
  ordering of the sections to optimize the compression ratio.

- If you are using OpenGL, try using ordinal range import for
  opengl32. If you are using Direct3D, try using ordinal range import
  for d3dx9_??. This may reduce the space needed for function hash

- If you are only importing functions from DLLs which are present on
  all Windows systems (d3dx9_?? is not), you can "safely" use the
  /UNSAFEIMPORT option. Run Crinkler with the /PRINT:IMPORTS option
  to check which DLLs you are importing from.

- Avoid large blocks of data, even if they are all zero. Use
  uninitialized (bss) sections instead. Crinkler does not cope well
  with large amounts of data. Be aware that the compressor may use an
  amount of memory up to about 4000 times the uncompressed code/data
  size (whichever is largest).

- When you perform detailed size comparisons, always use the SLOW
  compression mode with plenty of ORDERTRIES and compare the
  "Reestimated ideal compressed total size" values. The INSTANT and
  FAST modes are only intended for use during testing and to give a
  rough estimate of the compressed size. Also note that the
  compression is tuned for the 4k size target, so any size comparisons
  you perform on smaller files might turn out to behave differently
  when you get nearer to 4k.

- As a matter of good conduct, do not use TINYIMPORT or UNSAFEIMPORT
  if you can spare the space, and do not set HASHSIZE higher than
  you need. In other words, if your final intro is well below the size
  limit, remove the UNSAFEIMPORT option (if you added it in the
  first place) and then lower HASHSIZE in order not to waste memory
  unnecessarily. Also consider adding the high-performance GPU request
  exports as described under the EXPORT option if your intro could
  benefit from it.


Any DLL that is needed by a program that Crinkler compresses must be
available to Crinkler itself. If you get the error message 'Could not
open DLL ...', it means that Crinkler needed the DLL but could not
find it. You must place it either in the same directory as the
Crinkler executable or somewhere in the DLL path, such as
C:WINDOWSsystem32. Alternatively, you can use the REPLACEDLL option
to replace it by one that is available. If you get this message for
msvcr?? DLLs, you have a dependency on the runtime DLL you need to get
rid of. See the section on standard libraries.

When running inside Visual Studio, the textual progress bars are not
updated correctly, since the Visual Studio console does not flush the
output until a newline is reached, even when explicitly flushed by the
running program. Use the /PROGRESSGUI option to get a graphical
progress bar.

The code for parsing object and library files contains only a minimum
of sanity checks. If you pass a corrupt file to Crinkler, it will most
likely crash.

The final compressed size must be less than 128k, or Crinkler will fail
horribly. You shouldn't use it for such big files anyway.


Try out Crinkler, and let us know what you think about it. If you have
any problems, comments or suggestions, please write a message at the forum:

If you want to contact us directly, e.g. for sending us a file, write

If Crinkler crashes, it will write two dump files named
dump_mini.dmp and dump_full.dmp, where  is an integer making
the file name unique. These files contain information about the
execution state of Crinkler at the time of the crash. When reporting a
crash, please include at least the mini dump, or, if possible, both.

The newest released version of Crinkler can always be found at


The compression technique used by Crinkler is much inspired by the PAQ
compressor by Matt Mahoney.

The import code is loosely based on the hashed imports code by Peci.

The disassembly feature of the compression report uses the diStorm
disassembler library by Gil Dabah.

Many thanks to all the people who have given us comments, bug reports
and test material, in particular to Rambo, Kusma, Polaris, Gargaj,
Frenetic, Buzzie, Shash, Auld, Minas, Skarab, Dwing, Freak5, Hunta,
Snq, Darkblade, Abductee, iq, Las, pirx, Hitchhikr, Gloom, Zephod,
coda, KK, XMunkki, KammutierSpule, acidbrain, xTrim, jix, SubV242,
w23, ryg, shinmai, Decipher, xtrium, TomasRiker, smoothstep, XT95,
NeKoFu, n3Xus, Moerder, merry, RCL, zoom, vampire7, Key-Real,
quiller, Seven, and all the ones we have forgotten. Also thanks to
Dwarf, Polygon7 and Gargaj for suggestions for our web design.

Big thanks to Rrrola for his valuable suggestions for optimizing the
decompression code, and to qkumba for his guidance on the zero-section
header and for tracking down the NVIDIA driver issue.

Our special thanks to the many people who have demonstrated the
usefulness of Crinkler by using it for their own productions.

Keep it going! We greatly appreciate your feedback.

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FIFA 23 lets you turn off commentary pointing out how bad you are




FIFA 23 lets you turn off commentary pointing out how bad you are
A player shouldering the ball

(Image credit: EA)

FIFA 23 might be the best game soccer game yet for terrible sports fans, as it lets you turn off commentary that criticizes your bad playing.

Now that the early access FIFA 23 release time has passed, EA Play and Xbox Game Pass Ultimate subscribers can hop into the game ahead of its full release. But as Eurogamer (opens in new tab) spotted, they’ll find a peculiar option waiting for them.

FIFA 23 includes a toggle to turn off ‘Critical Commentary’. The setting lets you silence all negative in-match comments made about your technique, so you can protect your precious ego even when you miss an open goal or commit an obvious foul. The more positive commentary won’t be affected. 

Spare your feelings

A player dribbling the ball in FIFA 23

(Image credit: EA)

The feature looks tailored toward children and new players, who don’t want to have their confidence wrecked within mere minutes of picking up the controller. But even experienced players who just so happen to be terrible at the game might benefit.

It’s not perfect, though. According to Eurogamer, the feature didn’t seem to work during a FIFA Ultimate Team Division Rivals match, with critical comments slipping through the filter. Still, who hasn’t benefited from a light grilling every now and then?

Polite commentary isn’t the only new addition in FIFA 23. It’s the first game in the series to include women’s club football teams, and fancy overhauled animations that take advantage of the PS5 and Xbox Series X|S’s new-gen hardware. EA will be hoping to end on a high, as FIFA 23 will be the last of its soccer games to release with the official FIFA licence.

If disabling critical commentary doesn’t improve your soccer skills, maybe building a squad of Marvel superheroes will. Although you might not do much better with Ted Lasso wandering the pitch.

FIFA 23 is set to fully release this Friday, September 30.

Callum is TechRadar Gaming’s News Writer. You’ll find him whipping up stories about all the latest happenings in the gaming world, as well as penning the odd feature and review. Before coming to TechRadar, he wrote freelance for various sites, including Clash, The Telegraph, and, and worked as a Staff Writer at Wargamer. Strategy games and RPGs are his bread and butter, but he’ll eat anything that spins a captivating narrative. He also loves tabletop games, and will happily chew your ear off about TTRPGs and board games. 

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Google Pixel 7 price leak suggests Google is totally out of touch




Google Pixel 7 price leak suggests Google is totally out of touch
The backs of the Pixel 7 and the Pixel 7 Pro

(Image credit: Google)

We’re starting to hear more and more Google Pixel 7 leaks, with the launch of the phone just a week away, but tech fans might be getting a lot of déjà vu, with the leaks all listing near-identical specs to what we heard about the Pixel 6 a year ago.

It sounds like the new phones – a successor to the Pixel 6 Pro is also expected – could be very similar to their 2021 predecessors. And a new price leak has suggested that the phones’ costs could be the same too, as a Twitter user spotted the Pixel 7 briefly listed on Amazon (before being promptly taken down, of course).

Google pixel 7 on Amazon US. $599.99.It is still showing up in search cache but the listing gives an error if you click on it. We have the B0 number to keep track of though!#teampixel 27, 2022

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According to these listings, the Pixel 7 will cost $599 while the Pixel 7 Pro will cost $899, both of which are identical to the Pixel 6 and Pixel 6 Pro starting prices. The leak doesn’t include any other region prices, but in the UK the current models cost £599 and £849, while in Australia they went for AU$999 and AU$1,299.

So it sounds like Google is planning on retaining the same prices for its new phones as it sold the old ones for, a move which doesn’t make much sense.

Analysis: same price, new world

Google’s choice to keep the same price points is a little curious when you consider that the specs leaks suggest these phones are virtually unchanged from their predecessors. You’re buying year-old tech for the same price as before.

Do bear in mind that the price of tech generally lowers over time, so you can readily pick up a cheaper Pixel 6 or 6 Pro right now, and after the launch of the new ones, the older models will very likely get even cheaper.

But there’s another key factor to consider in the price: $599 might be the same number in 2022 as it was in 2021, but with the changing global climate, like wars and flailing currencies and cost of living crises, it’s a very different amount of money.

Some people just won’t be willing to shell out the amount this year, that they may have been able to last year. But this speaks to a wider issue in consumer tech.

Google isn’t the only tech company to completely neglect the challenging global climate when pricing its gadgets: Samsung is still releasing super-pricey folding phones, and the iPhone 14 is, for some incomprehensible reason, even pricier than the iPhone 13 in some regions. 

Too few brands are actually catering to the tough economic times many are facing right now, with companies increasing the price of their premium offerings to counter rising costs, instead of just designing more affordable alternatives to flagships.

These high and rising prices suggest that companies are totally out of touch with their buyers, and don’t understand the economic hardship troubling many.

We’ll have to reach a breaking point sooner or later, either with brands finally clueing into the fact that they need to release cheaper phones, or with customers voting with their wallets by sticking to second-hand or refurbished devices. But until then, you can buy the best cheap phones to show that cost is important to you.

Tom’s role in the TechRadar team is to specialize in phones and tablets, but he also takes on other tech like electric scooters, smartwatches, fitness, mobile gaming and more. He is based in London, UK.

He graduated in American Literature and Creative Writing from the University of East Anglia. Prior to working in TechRadar freelanced in tech, gaming and entertainment, and also spent many years working as a mixologist. Outside of TechRadar he works in film as a screenwriter, director and producer.

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DisplayMate awards the “Best Smartphone Display” title to the iPhone 14 Pro Max




DisplayMate awards the “Best Smartphone Display” title to the iPhone 14 Pro Max

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